Biomass gasifier used to eliminate tar in the production of producer gas

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Brief description

Biomass gasification is a process of converting solid biomass fuel into a gaseous combustible gas (called producer gas) through a sequence of thermo -chemical reactions. It is an effective way of converting plant material into a valuable energy source. It is an important thermal chemical process that converts any carbonaceous biomass to gaseous products. Compared with traditional coal gasification, biomass gasification takes place at a lower temperature (~ 900 °C) due to the essential nature of biomass. However, the gasification process also creates significant amounts of vaporous tars. As the gas stream cools, the vaporous tars may condense and deposit themselves on downstream components. The deposited tars may reduce the reliability of the system by fouling and/or damaging the downstream components. The presence of Tar in producer gas can affect the performance of the engine, by damaging the lube-oil and the engine components. 

The existing methods are not able to overcome the problem associated with the removal of tar vapours and the problems associated with the functioning of an engine that is damaged by the presence of tar in producer gas. Thus it is raised a biomass gasifier system for power generation, easy and cost-effective to provide high-quality producer gas, eliminate tar in the production of producer gas, effectively help the user, provide a cleaner fuel for operating IC engines, and provide energy access to the remote and economically deprived populations that can uplift the economic status.

Process detail

The triple reactor gasifier includes a pyrolyzer zone, a gasification reactor zone, and a tar cracker zone. The gasification reactor zone generates producer gas and attached below the pyrolyzer zone. The tar cracker zone eliminates the presence of tar in the producer gas and attached below the gasification reactor zone. Herein, the pyrolyzer zone of the triple reactor gasifier performs the pyrolysis of biomass. Herein, the gasification reactor zone of the triple reactor gasifier performs gasification of biomass thus producing the producer gas. Herein, in the tar cracker zone, tar is being eliminated from the producer gas. The ash collector is attached below the tar cracker zone and collects ash from the bottom portion of the tar cracker zone. Herein, the ash collector collects the residual ash after the conversion of biomass fuel into high-quality producer gas, and ash is removed periodically, depending on the type of biomass and duration of operation of the triple reactor gasifier. 

The fuel hopper is mounted on the triple reactor gasifier in order to pour biomass into the triple reactor gasifier. The primary gas cooling unit includes a blower that is used to suck the ambient air into the primary gas cooling unit. The primary producer gas pipe connects the primary gas cooling unit to the tar cracker zone of the triple reactor gasifier in order to send hot producer gas from the tar cracker zone to the primary gas cooling unit. The hot air distributor is connected to the primary gas cooling unit. The hot air distributor includes a pyrolyzer hot air pipe, a gasification hot air pipe, and a tar cracker hot air pipe. The pyrolyzer hot air pipe connects the hot air distributor to the pyrolyzer zone. The gasification hot air pipe connects the hot air distributor to the gasification reactor zone. The tar cracker hot air pipe connects the hot air distributor to the tar cracker zone. Herein, the blower is used to blow the ambient air into the primary gas cooling unit in order to cool the hot producer gas that is being sent from the tar cracker zone to the primary gas cooling unit. Herein, the ambient air absorbs the heat of the hot producer gas during the cooling process and becomes hot air. Herein, the hot air distributor supplies the hot air to the pyrolyzer zone, the gasification reactor zone and the tar cracker zone from the primary gas cooling unit through the pyrolyzer hot air pipe, the gasification hot air pipe and the tar cracker hot air pipe respectively. The secondary gas cooling unit is connected to the primary gas cooling unit through the secondary producer gas pipe in order to send the producer gas to the second gas cooling unit from the primary gas cooling unit. The evaporative cooler is connected to the second gas cooling unit through a hot water pipe and a cold water pipe. Herein, the secondary gas cooling unit reduces the temperature of producer gas coming from the primary gas cooling unit by using water. Herein, the evaporative cooler cools the water supplied to the second gas cooling unit that is being used to reduce the temperature of the producer gas. The cartridge filter is connected to the second gas cooling unit through the cartridge filter pipe and the cartridge filter is used to remove the fine dust from the producer gas. The air-fuel mixing unit is connected to the cartridge filter through the air-fuel mixture pipe and mixes the producer gas and air in the required proportion. The air filter is connected to the air-fuel mixing unit to filter the fine dust particles present in air before mixing air to the producer gas. The IC engine is connected to the air-fuel mixing unit and bums a mixture of air and producer gas to generate mechanical torque. The electric power generator is connected to the IC engine that uses mechanical torque for electricity generation. Herein, the IC engine and the electric power generator coupled with an alternator for power generation.

Details

Country
India
Actors
Private company
Process type
Gasification
Chain
Mixed
Final product
Gas productor libre de alquitrán
Experience period
2021
Scale
Industrial